Ambient Ionizaton Methods

Objective: Develop new methods for ionization of a variety of different molecules, from small to big under ambient conditions.

  • Electro-Sonic Spray Ionization (ESSI)
  • Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)
  • Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (DAPCI)
  • Atmospheric Pressure Thermo Desorption Ionization (APTDI)
  • Low Temperature Plasma Ionization (LTP)
  • Paper Spray Ionization (PS)


Advantages of Ambient Ionization
  • No Sample preparation required
  • Rapid, direct analysis of wide range of compounds
  • High throughput analysis


Mass Spectrometry in the Ambient Environment

  • DESI: Takats et al, Science, 2004, 306, 471
  • ELDI: Shiea et al, RCM, 2005, 19, 3701
  • MALDESI: Muddiman, JASMS, 2006, 17, 1712
  • EDI: Hiraoka et al, JMS, 2006, 41, 894
  • AP-MALDI: Dororshenko et al, IJMS, 2002
  • DART: Cody et al, Anal. Chem, 2005, 77, 2297


DESI analysis on skin for drug monitoring



  • Zoltan Takats, Justin M. Wiseman, Bogdan Gologan, R. Graham Cooks, "Electro-sonic Spray Ionization. A Gentle Technique for Generating Folded Proteins and Protein Complexes in the Gas Phase and Studying Ion-Molecule Reactions at Atmospheric Pressure", Anal. Chem., 2004, 76, 4050-4058. doi: 10.1021/ac049848m
  • Zoltan Takats, Justin M. Wiseman, Bogdan Gologan, and R. Graham Cooks, "Mass Spectrometry Sampling Under Ambient Conditions with Desorption Electrospray Ionization" Science, 5695 (2004) 471-473. doi: 10.1126/science.1104404
  • Hao Chen, Zheng Ouyang, R. Graham Cooks , "Thermal Production and Reactions of Organic Ions at Atmospheric Pressure" Angewandte Chemie International Edition2006, 45, 3656-3660, doi: 10.1002/anie.200600660
  • Ismael Cotte-Rodríguez, Christopher C. Mulligan, and R. Graham Cooks , "Non-Proximate Detection of Small and Large Molecules by Desorption Electrospray Ionization and Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Instrumentation and Applications in Forensics, Chemistry, and Biology" , Analytical Chemistry2007, 79 (18), 7069-7077,doi: 10.1021/ac0707939